Oil price decline impacts African economies

first_imgDuring 2014 many Western-based financial publications declared that the Federal Republic of Nigeria had surpassed the Republic of South Africa as the largest economy on the continent.Nigeria relies on oil exports to generate its foreign exchange earnings.Minister of Finance Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala delivered a major policy address Nov. 17 indicating that the rapid decline in oil prices would cause the government of President Goodluck Jonathan to impose measures designed to trim costs and spending. In a Jan. 5 article in the leading Nigerian newspaper Leadership, the finance minister admitted that the price declines and drop in production forced the government to cut its capital expenditures by 59 percent.With increased oil production in the United States, India has replaced the U.S. as the largest importer of Nigerian crude oil. From April 2013 to March 2014, India imported $14 billion worth of goods from Nigeria, making India Nigeria’s largest trading partner.Impact on laborDuring mid-December the two largest oil workers unions in Nigeria held a four-day strike to demand lower gasoline prices in light of the rapid slump in oil prices on the global market. Other demands included infrastructural improvements, including the roads surrounding oil production facilities. The workers also sought to pressure the government to pass a new petroleum investment bill that had been stalled for years in the parliament.Bloomberg reported on Dec. 15, “The [strike] action involves both Pengassan, as the managerial union is known, and the Nigerian Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas Workers, or Nupeng, its affiliate for manual workers. Nigeria’s crude oil output declined 3.2 percent when they last went on strike in September.”The strike, which could have shut down production and cut foreign exchange earnings, was settled in less than a week.These industrial actions in Nigeria coincided with unrest around the entire region. In Ghana, a new oil-producing state, a public sector strike took place during mid-2014 over the demand for the government to take action against the declining value of the cedi, the national currency, and the need to protect pension funds.By late October, oil workers were again demanding improvements in conditions of their employment. A statement issued by the Ghana Management and Petroleum Commission showed that the government was intervening to resolve the issues even if this meant making some concessions to the workers.Sudan suffers from partitionNearly four years ago the Republic of Sudan was partitioned after the conclusion of civil unrest and war that had existed for decades. Sudan, prior to the division of the country, was the largest geographic nation-state in Africa, with nearly a million square miles.As a growing oil-producing state, the Republic of Sudan was pumping 500,000 barrels per day prior to 2011. Since the partition, both Khartoum, Sudan’s capital, and the Republic of South Sudan have suffered growing economic difficulties.South Sudan is receiving the lowest price internationally for its oil. This is in part the result of a negotiated deal with the Republic of Sudan where additional costs were placed on the export of each barrel of oil in order to compensate Khartoum for South Sudan‘s ownership of the pipelines and the potential damage done to its economy resulting from the partition.­Production has also been hampered due to the recent conflict between the followers of President Salva Kiir and those of ousted Vice President Reik Machar. Hundreds of thousands of people have been dislocated, and neighboring Uganda has deployed troops to South Sudan to bolster the central government in Juba.On Dec. 21 the Financial Times reported: “War-torn South Sudan is receiving what traders say is arguably the lowest oil price in the world, $20-$25 a barrel, because of falling prices and unfavorable pipeline contracts. South Sudanese revenues have now fallen to about $100 million a month, equal to an oil price of about $20.50 per barrel based on output of 160,000 barrels a day.”The Financial Times article stresses: “Oil executives believe South Sudan could become an example of how falling oil prices can exacerbate political risk as countries are forced to slash budgets.”Prospects for economic growth amid declining pricesThese problems are reflective of the ongoing vulnerability of the oil-producing African states based on the fluctuations of the international petroleum market. Other commodity prices have also declined.The discovery of large-scale oil deposits in East Africa had fueled speculation based on phenomenal economic growth. But this growth depended on increased exports with prices above $100 per barrel. Although the price decline brings some benefits for nonproducing states, it poses serious problems for states that have focused development plans on increased drilling and exports.New Times reported Dec. 14: “Economists expect, in the short run, tumbling prices to benefit East African consumers in form of reduced commodity prices. But two East African economies, Kenya and Uganda, which have invested heavily in recently discovered oil, could suffer negative effects if the trend persists up to the time they are expected to start production.”A Dec. 30 article in the Ugandan Observer opines: “The macroeconomic malaise in both Russia and Nigeria as a result of the plunge in oil prices is a clear reminder to the East African economies that while oil and gas will open up new sources of government revenue and foreign exchange inflows, the other sectors of the economy should not be ignored. In any case, it would be prudent to direct the oil and gas revenues to facilitate the growth of manufacturing, services and agricultural sectors.”Nonetheless, efforts aimed at diversifying the economies of African states will face major impediments after substantial resources have already been invested in plans to increase oil production. These developments illustrate that until genuine economic growth based on the internal priorities of African states can be realized, these postcolonial societies will remain subject to the capitalist problems of overproduction and declining prices.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

Read Full Article

Condoms Filled with Drugs Confiscated in Bolivia

first_imgBy Dialogo December 18, 2012 The Bolivian police seized 121 kilos of liquid cocaine wrapped in condoms and stored in cans of hearts of palm that were to be shipped to Africa and Europe, after passing through Chile, a prosecutor reported on December 14. Counter narcotics prosecutor Miguel Trigo Rocha, told local TV channels that operations were carried out in Cochabamba, 560 miles east of La Paz, where they found empty boxes of condoms that were used to wrap the drugs in a private home. “We found several empty boxes of condoms, which were placed (with the drugs) inside cans of hearts of palm, and sealed afterwards,” said the prosecutor, who also confirmed that a counter drug authority had said in previous versions that the liquid drug amounted to 121 kilos. The drugs were canned in Cochabamba and taken to Oruro, near Chile. Regional anti-drug commander Colonel Iván Tapia, stated that the substance found on December 16 “was inside 1,499 cans of hearts of palm” on a busy road northbound to Chile. Prior investigations by the prosecutor’s office showed that the drugs were destined for Africa, before being sent to Europe. According to the United Nations, Bolivia is the third largest cocaine producer, after Peru and Colombia.last_img read more

Read Full Article

Visit Advent on Plitvice Lakes and Korenica

first_imgWe are counting down to Christmas and New Year, and this year the Advent program in the Municipality of Plitvice Lakes offers you various activities and attractions that you can complete your visit to the natural beauties of this area. All events are open to the public, free of charge and everyone is welcome to a happy December in the Municipality of Plitvice Lakes !!! The happy month ends with a double celebration of the New Year in Korenica. First at noon with a welcome for the youngest and a special program, and in the evening at a big celebration with a GS band and fun until the early morning hours. The snow has fallen and we have been witnessing magical scenes from Plitvice Lakes for days, and fun activities in December at Plitvice Lakes and Korenica last until the New Year’s celebration. In addition to sports pleasures, a super event will be held on Friday, December 21st “Party 65+” which will bring together seniors for a merry holiday celebration starting at 13 p.m. A new big attraction that will attract many visitors is the open skating rink in Mukinje, which will be open until January 15. Joyful little skaters gather at the rink every day, and those a little bigger in the mood for more adrenaline enjoy the ski resort and toboggan run. The day after that, on Saturday morning, December 22, a gathering was organized in front of the City Library in Korenica with Christmas songs, mulled wine and sausages for all citizens and visitors.last_img read more

Read Full Article

UK pensions regulator to test trustee knowledge, understanding

first_imgThe UK’s pension regulator (TPR) plans to contact a large number of pension schemes to test levels of trustee knowledge and understanding and considering “appropriate action” where they fall below expectations, it announced today.First, however, it will review and update its code of practice on trustee knowledge and understanding and the trustee “toolkit”. The aim is to make its expectations clearer and drive up standards of trusteeship.TPR unveiled the plan when publishing its response to its Future of Trusteeship and Governance consultation, which drew a record 114 written responses.Another area of the consultation covered scheme governance structures, including a proposal that all schemes have an accredited professional trustee. After considerable opposition to the suggestion TPR has dropped it, and the regulator also said it would not immediately push for new measures to strengthen governance standards for sole trustees. “We are not at this stage going to introduce new measures in areas such as sole trusteeship and adding a professional trustee to boards”David Fairs, executive director of policy, TPR“We have listened carefully to what the industry has told us, and we are not at this stage going to introduce new measures in areas such as sole trusteeship and adding a professional trustee to boards,” said David Fairs, executive director of policy at TPR.“However, we will continue to monitor standards closely to ensure our expectations for scheme governance are met, and that the right action is taken where schemes do not improve. Only in this way, and by working with industry bodies, can we ensure savers are adequately protected.”TPR’s consultation also asked questions related to board diversity and on the back of the feedback the regulator today said it would establish and lead an industry working group to find ways of supporting schemes to take steps to improve trustee diversity.On consolidation in the defined contribution (DC) market, TPR said it would “continue to work with both industry and the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) to find solutions to overcome barriers to consolidation”.There are 29,570 occupational schemes with two or more DC members in the UK, the majority (95%) of which are micro, meaning they have two to 11 members.Industy reactionDavid Everett, partner at consultancy Lane Clark & Peacock, said TPR’s response to its consultation differed markedly from “where many observers might have thought it would end up, especially given the abrasive tone that accompanied its launch last July.”However, the regulator was right to have decided “to tread slowly and carefully,” he argued.“Perhaps the greatest surprise is that having huffed and puffed, the regulator has nothing specific to say about encouraging DC consolidation,” added Everett. “But maybe that is because the Department for Work and Pensions is about to issue its response to a separate consultation that will in time give the regulator some tools to put pressure on underperforming DC schemes to improve or consolidate.”Caroline Escott, policy lead for Investment and Stewardship at the Pensions and Lifetime Savings Association, said TPR’s response would “allow good schemes of all shapes and sizes the space to continue to thrive, without burdening them with excessive regulation”.“The original consultation did however identify some complex and structural issues, and it will be important that the regulator continues to work with the industry to find solutions to these challenges,” she added.On the topic of governance, Laura Andrikopoulos, head of governance at Hymans Robertson, said it was positive that TPR had acknowledged that requirements for trustee knowledge and understanding differed for different types of scheme, such as DB and DC.Susan Hoare, partner at Aon, welcomed the revision of the code of practice, noting that the current one is 11 years old.“Our hope is that TPR takes this opportunity to connect the minimum requirements for all trustees with the combined skills and knowledge of the whole board,” she said. Instead it would support the Association of Professional Pension Trustees (APPT) standards and the upcoming industry accreditation framework for professional trustees.last_img read more

Read Full Article

Cricket News Rohit Sharma Smashes Maiden Double Ton To Decimate South Africa

first_imgNew Delhi: Rohit Sharma smashed his maiden double century and continued his record-breaking run in the ongoing series against South Africa at the JSCA stadium in Ranchi. Rohit neared the landmark with two consecutive boundaries off Anrich Nortje when the second new ball was taken and he confidently neared his landmark. Rohit survived an inside edge onto his stumps off Kagiso Rabada as he moved to 199. The right-hander notched up his double ton by hitting Lungi Ngidi for a big six. He had gotten to his century with a six and he repeated the feat for his double ton. He also hot his 50th six in Tests, also creating a record. Barring the Pune Test, Rohit has enjoyed a spectacular run when he became the sixth Indian player to hit a century in both innings of a Test during the Vizag match against the same opponents. This was the second double century in Ranchi, with Cheteshwar Pujara slamming 202 against Australia in 2017.Rohit held firm at the other end, neogitating Rabada’s pace and being patient. After being beaten by Rabada, Rohit got going with a streaky four off Lungi Ngidi. Rabada hit Rohit on the glove as he negotiated the first hour in a tricky way. However, when South Africa decided to bowl short, Rohit unfurled the pull shot and he found the boundary on a regular basis. With Rohit attacking, South Africa strayed in their lines and the Mumbai right-hander pounced on it. Rohit neared his fifty with a top-edged six off Nortje over fine leg and he reached his fifty in style with a straight drive to the long off fence. With Ajinkya Rahane playing aggressively and matching Rohit stroke for stroke, the partnership crossed 100 and the Proteas bowling was deflated. Rohit grew in confidence with every passing minute, flicking left-arm spinner George Linde and driving Nortje with ease through the covers. Ngidi felt the wrath of Rohit when the batsman smashed two boundaries off him, one through deep extra cover and one to fine leg. Also Read | Ajinkya Rahane Slams 11th Century In Ranchi Test Against South AfricaThe introduction of Dane Piedt increased Rohit’s aggression as he smashed two sixes off the spinner to cross the 90s. With those two sixes off Piedt, Rohit broke the record for the most sixes by an Indian player in a bilateral Test series. Previously, Harbhajan Singh had held the record with 14 sixes during India’s series against New Zealand in 2010. Rohit notched up his century in grand style as he blasted Piedt over long off. For all the Latest Sports News News, Cricket News News, Download News Nation Android and iOS Mobile Apps.last_img read more

Read Full Article

ABC News’ Quinones to Speak at BCC

first_imgLINCROFT – Brookdale Community College Student Life opens the Fall Lecture Series on Thurs­day, Sept. 27, in the Collins Arena with ABC’s John Quinones; What Would You Do?Quinones is an Emmy Award winning journalist. He currently works on ABC’s Primetime. During his 25 years at ABC News, Quinones has also served as a correspondent for the network’s 20/20 news magazine.Quinones’ recent work includes a series of reports also titled “What Would You Do?” In these reports, which test human nature through a hidden camera, actors present controversial scenarios to elicit responses from unsuspecting bystanders. Scenarios have focused on interracial couples, challenges facing gays and lesbians, elder abuse and more.Among Quinones’ reporting is extensive coverage of a religious sect in northern Arizona that forces its young female members to take part in polygamous marriages. He has gone undercover with a hidden camera to reveal how clinics were performing unnecessary surgical procedures as part of a major nationwide insurance scam.Quinones has followed along with a group of would-be Mexican immigrants as they attempted to cross into the United States. The seven-time Emmy Award winner also traveled to Israel for a CINE award-winning report about suicide bombers.The presentation is free for Brookdale students with a valid ID, staff and faculty and $5 for the community. All attendees require a ticket, available at the Lincroft main campus Student Life desk in the Warner Student Life Center. Hours are 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. Mondays trough Thursdays and 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Fridays. Parking is closest in lot 7.The Lincroft main campus is located at 765 Newman Springs Road.The next Student Life-sponsored lectures will be Oct. 9 by Zach Wahls, “What Makes a Family” and Oct. 16, for Matt Roloff, from the television show Little People, Big World, who will speak about his testimony on same-sex marriage.For more details, contact the Student Life information desk at 732-224-2500.Additional event calendar information is available at  www.brookdalecc.edu.last_img read more

Read Full Article

PICK SIX CARRYOVER OF $40,671 INTO SATURDAY AT SANTA ANITA; TOTAL PICK SIX POOL SHOULD APPROACH $400,000

first_imgNINE-RACE CARD INCLUDES FOUR GRADED STAKES WITH FIRST POST TIME AT 12:30 P.M. ARCADIA, Calif. (Feb. 5, 2016)–There is a Pick Six carryover of $40,671 into Saturday at Santa Anita and it’s expected Saturday’s total Pick Six pool should approach $400,000 as four graded stakes will be included in an outstanding nine-race program.With the Grade III, $150,000 Robert B. Lewis carded as race four on Saturday, the Pick Six will get off to a classy beginning as Bob Baffert’s talented Mor Spirit, to be ridden by Gary Stevens, has been installed as the 8-5 morning line favorite in a field of seven 3-year-olds at 1 1/16 miles.Saturday’s fifth race, the Grade II, $300,000 Las Virgenes Stakes, will mark the 3-year-old debut of undefeated Eclipse Champion Filly Songbird, who will be ridden by Mike Smith and is a prohibitive 1-5 morning line favorite for Jerry Hollendorfer.An important steppingstone to the $1 million Santa Anita Handicap, the Grade II, $500,000 San Antonio Stakes, which is carded as Saturday’s seventh race, is headed by 5-2 morning line favorite Imperative, who is trained by Richard Baltas and will be ridden by Mike Smith.The Grade II, $200,000 San Marcos Stakes, at a mile and a quarter on turf for older horses, has been carded as the eighth race and offers fans a field of 11, with English-bred Hay Dude serving as the 5-2 morning line choice. Trained by Phil D’Amato, Hay Dude will be ridden by apprentice David Lopez.First post time on Saturday is at 12:30 p.m., admission gates open at 10:30 a.m. For complete morning line information and late changes, please visit santaanita.com.last_img read more

Read Full Article

GRADED STAKES WINNER HEART TO HEART HEADS WEST IN HOPES OF WINNING THE GRADE I, $400,000 SHOEMAKER MILE ON TURF SATURDAY, JUNE 4

first_imgTHE GRADE I, $400,000 SHOEMAKER MILE IN POST POSITION ORDER WITH JOCKEYS AND WEIGHTSRace 6 (of 11) Heart to Heart – Julien Leparoux – 121Twentytwentyvision – Flavien Prat – 121Tourist – Jose Lezcano – 121Home Run Kitten – Joe Talamo – 121Cape Wolfe – Mike Smith – 121Midnight Storm – Rafael Bejarano – 121For scratches, late changes and complete morning line information, please visit http://www.santaanita.com/horse-racing/live-racing/.Released on 6/1/16For more information, please contact Alexis Garske at [email protected] or call 626-574-6418. SHOEMAKER MILE FIRST BREEDERS’ CUP WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS ‘WIN & YOU’RE IN’ CHALLENGE RACE OF THE YEAR OFFERED AT GREAT RACE PLACE             ARCADIA, Calif. (June 1, 2016)–East Coast invader Heart to Heart will hope to take home a trophy to his New York base as the 5-year-old English-bred horse, trained by Brian Lynch heads a field of six in Saturday’s 73rd running of the Grade I, $400,000 Shoemaker Mile on turf for 3-year-olds and up.The Shoemaker Mile is the first of what will be eight total ‘Win & You’re In’ Breeders’ Cup Challenge Races leading up to the World Championships on Nov. 4 & 5 here at The Great Race Place. The Shoemaker Mile winner will be an automatic qualifier, with entry fees waived, into the 2016 Breeders’ Cup Mile.HEART TO HEART: A six-time overall graded stakes winner on the grass, Heart to Heart won the Grade III River City Handicap at Churchill Downs Nov. 26, the Grade II Ft. Lauderdale Stakes at Gulfstream Jan. 9 and the Grade III Canadian Turf Stakes also at Gulfstream Feb. 27 before running second to Miss Temple City in his last outing, the Grade I, Maker’s 46 Mile Stakes at Keeneland on April 15. The 5-year-old English Channel horse earned a 105 Beyer speed figure for the Maker’s Mile effort, his fourth straight 100-plus rating.Owned by Terry Hamilton, Heart to Heart will again be ridden by East Coast based jockey Julien Leparoux and is 21-9-3-2 overall with $786,030 in earnings.TOURIST: The other East Coast invader, Tourist ships in for trainer Bill Mott and owners WinStar Farm, LLC, Wachtel Stable and Gary Barber and will be seeking his first graded stakes win. The 5-year-old horse by Tiznow last ran at Santa Anita in the 2014 Breeders’ Cup Mile where he finished 13th behind Karakonite. Off for much of the early part of 2015, Tourist returned to the Winner’s Circle in his first race back, the More Than Ready Mile Stakes at Kentucky Downs Sept. 5 and followed that with solid third place finishes in the Grade I Shadwell Turf Mile Oct. 3 and the Maker’s 46 Mile behind Miss Temple City and Heart to Heart April 15. He is 14-4-2-3 overall with $590,340 in earnings.center_img MIDNIGHT STORM: Second in last year’s edition of the Shoemaker Mile, Midnight Storm, the speedy 5-year-old horse by Pioneerof the Nile, trained by Phil D’Amato will hope to return to earlier form and will most likely find himself on the lead once again Saturday.A winner of the mile and a sixteenth Seabiscuit Handicap at Del Mar on Nov. 27, Midnight Storm has since run fourth in the Grade I, Kilroe Mile at Santa Anita and a disappointing seventh in the Grade I, mile and an eighth Turf Classic at Churchill Downs Kentucky Derby Day. He is 15-5-3-0 overall with earnings of $591,110.TWENTYTWENTYVISION: The 5-year-old gelding by Pollard’s Vision trained by Richard Mandella will seek his first added money victory Saturday but is well on his way to making a name for himself. The least experienced in the field with only 10 lifetime starts but continually improving, Twentytwentyvision has never run out of the money, whether on dirt or grass and will be reunited with Flavien Prat Saturday. He is 10-4-3-3 overall with $289,480 in earnings.last_img read more

Read Full Article

‘Dr. Gwenigale’s Blood Pressure Is 197/90’

first_imgOne of Liberia’s renowned medical doctors has written and informed the Liberian Senate that the blood pressure of Health and Social Welfare Minister, Dr. Walter T. Gwenigale, is currently reading 197/90, and the Minister has been advised to avoid stressful situations.According to a medical report dated October 27, 2014 under the signature of Dr. Robert M. Kpoto of the Medlink Kassas Clinic in Monrovia, Minister Gwenigale is suffering from hypertension cardiovascular disease, which is associated with cardiac-related complications.According to Dr. Gwenigale’s medical report read before plenary yesterday, Dr. Kpoto wrote: “I have monitored Dr. Gwenigale’s blood pressure since October 16, 2014, which according to him sky-rocketed during his briefing at the Senate the previous day October 15, 2014.”Dr. Kpoto noted in his report that his colleague, Dr. Gwenigale is a known hypertensive since 1985 (29 years ago), but his pressure has been under control on medications until his recent encounter with the Senate. The pressure he said has since been unstable still ranging between high and normal, inspite of medications.“This morning, I checked him and his blood pressure is 197/90; his pulse is 88 per minute, but irregularly irregular.I have therefore, asked him to avoid stressful situations, continue his medications and take it easy at work.”Dr. Kpoto, concluding the medical report, wrote: “I will continue to monitor him until his pressure is stable, hopefully within the next 14 days; if his condition is not improved, then I will recommend a cardiologist’s assessment.”Dr. Kpoko’s report indicated that the embattled Minister is currently on prescribed medication.In a brief communication that accompanied the medical report, Dr. Gwenigale, who turns 80 next February (1935) wrote: “Attached,  please find a medical report that shows that my blood pressure is still elevated, and my appearance will make it even worse. I am kindly requesting that you allow me to appear when my health improves. I thank you for your understanding and cooperation…”Dr. Gwenigale was recently cited by the Senate to appear before the Senate with his lawyer to show reason why he should not be held in contempt after he accused members of the Senate Committee on Health of being in support of health workers’ strike action.Since then, his blood pressure has interfered with schedules to appear before members of the upper house.Following yesterday’s communication, retiring Grand Kru County Senator Cletus Segbe Wotorson proffered a motion that the letter be sent to the Health Committee, which is headed by Senator (Dr.) Peter Coleman, who is a medical doctor and a surgeon, to better advise the plenary. “Senator Coleman will advise us so as not to put Dr. Gwenigale in a precarious situation and will caution us as to whether we need to continue with this process, because at 197/90, Dr. Gwenigale shouldn’t be walking around.”The motion was passed despite the expressions of un-readiness by Senators who were suggesting amendments.Bomi County Senator Sando Dazoe Johnson, before the final motion, warned his colleagues that the appearance of Dr. Gwenigale has become a political issue, and that there are attempts by the Executive to make the Liberian Senate look ridiculous. “In order to save our faces, I will suggest that instead of the Minister (Dr. Gwenigale) coming here, and since he says he is sick and can no longer make it, we just forget about him now and let him go on, because this is a delay tactic by Dr. Gwenigale and his boss…we’ve got many things to do for the Liberian people instead of wasting time behind somebody who is stubborn and arrogant.So please accept my amendments that the Liberian Senate drop all charges against Dr. Gwenigale and let him go and sin no more,” Senator Johnson recommended.       Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Read Full Article

Guidelines for employing youth on your farm

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Chris Zoller, Extension Educator, ANR in Tuscarawas CountyStudents will be wrapping up their school year soon and you may have a young person contact you about a summer job. Young people often have an interest to work on a farm and many are excellent employees. However, as an employer, there are rules and regulations you must understand before hiring minors to do work on your farm.The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) has established certain provisions to protect the safety of minors. In 1967, the U.S. Secretary of Labor determined certain agricultural jobs as hazardous to youth less than 16 years of age. There are two exemptions to these regulations:The list of hazardous agricultural occupations does not apply to youth under 16 years of age working on a farm owned by their parents or guardians; andThe list of hazardous agricultural occupations does not apply to youth under 16 years of age who have completed an approved Tractor and Machinery Certification course. Such course allows youth who are 14 or 15 years of age to operate tractors over 20 horsepower for hire to someone other than their parents.For most Ohio laws, anyone under 18 years of age is considered a minor and the Ohio Revised Code (ORC) prohibits minors from working in hazardous occupations. There are certain sections of the ORC that do not apply to minors, including obtaining an age and school certificate (unless you employ children of migrant workers), keeping a list of minor employees, and paying the minimum wage.Agricultural occupations considered hazardous to youth under 16 years of age include:Operating a tractor of more than 20 PTO horsepower, or connecting or disconnecting implements from such tractor;Operating a combine, corn picker, hay mower, harvester, hay baler or potato digger;Operating a feed grinder, grain dryer, forage blower, auger conveyor or the unloading mechanism of a non-gravity type self-unloading wagon or trailer;Operating a trencher, earth moving equipment, fork lift, power-driven circular, band or chain saw;Working in a yard, stall, or pen occupied by a bull, boar or stud horse; or sow with suckling pigs or cow with newborn calf;Felling, bucking, skidding, loading or unloading timber with butt diameter of greater than six inches;Working on a ladder at a height of more than 20 feet;Working in a forage, fruit, or grain storage facility; an upright silo within two weeks after silage has been added or when a top unloading device is operating; a manure pit; or a horizontal silo when operating a tractor for packing purposes;Handling or applying pesticides with the words or symbols “Danger”, “Poison”, “Skull and Crossbones”, or “Warning” on the label;Handling or using blasting agents;Driving a bus, truck or automobile or riding on a tractor as a passenger;Transporting, transferring, or applying anhydrous ammoniaThere may be restrictions to the number of hours and when a minor can perform farm work. See the table for a summary:Federal regulations require employers of youth under 16 years of age to maintain records about each employee. Minors employed by a parent or guardian are exempt from this requirement. The Ohio Revised Code exempts agricultural employers from record keeping requirements for minors. However, the Ohio Revised Code does require an agreement as to wages for work to be performed be made between the employer and minor before employment begins. The agreement should be in writing and signed by both parties.Additional information about the employment of minors in agriculture is available from this OSU Extension Fact Sheet: https://farmoffice.osu.edu/blog/fri-04122019-340pm/ohio-agricultural-law-blog-navigating-ohio%E2%80%99s-line-fence-law.last_img read more

Read Full Article